Yaupon Research

      Yaupon Brothers Tea is unique amoung herbal beverages. Like its cousin, the Yerba Mate, Yaupon delivers impressive antioxidant properties and a ‘jitter-free’ caffeine quality, which is noticeably smoother and more ethereal than Arabica coffee or teas from the genus Camellia. What’s more impressive is that studies have shown Yaupon Asi to have anti-inflammatory qualities which seem to have the capability to reduce cancer cells, especially in the Colon. In addition to caffeine, Yaupon contains other cordical stimulants such as theobromine. It’s antioxidant values, which have been assessed using the ORAC test, can rival any super-food from any part of the world. Lucky for you, Yaupon Tea is grown and packaged right here in the United States…An American native tea; who knew!

     The native Ais and Timucua tribes of Florida used Yaupon in their most revered ceremonies. It was truly their most prized possession, and its consumption was limited to high-status tribal elders and guests. An offering was first provided to the spirits before the chief could take his first sip. The native Floridians would drink massive amounts of Yaupon in a single sitting, sometimes many gallons for each drinker. The natives would then purge themselves ritually, which they believed removed their anger and falsehoods. Regardless of what you may hear, Yaupon does NOT have emetic properties, and the purgative effect was likely acheived through the addition of toxic native plants, such as Snakeroot. This is supported by modern science.

     Below, you will find several links which serve to substantiate our claims about Yaupon Asi Tea. Most of the research has been conducted over many years by various respected insitutions of higher learning. All of these documents are available to you upon request,

      At Yaupon Brothers Tea, we believe in business accountability. We are Yaupon drinkers, and we are selling our life’s work to you. We believe in Yaupon Brothers Tea , and we want you to believe in it too. However, we are obliged to let you know that Yaupon Brothers Tea is NOT intended to treat, cure, or diagnose any medical condition. Our product is a food, not a drug, and has not been evaluated by the FDA. Yaupon Brothers Tea is 100% sustainably harvested from secure wild populations. 100% of our product is derived from Central Florida, USA, where Yaupon has been consumed for thousands of years.

The Beneficial Compounds of Yaupon Brothers Tea



Some epidemiological studies have found a positive association between the consumption of foods containing kaempferol and a reduced risk of developing several disorders such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Numerous preclinical studies have shown kaempferol and some glycosides of kaempferol have a wide range of pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, antidiabetic, antiosteoporotic, estrogenic/antiestrogenic, anxiolytic, analgesic, and antiallergic activities

 Chlorogenic Acid

The term chlorogenic acids refers to a family of esters of hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid) with quinic acid.[1]The term chlorogenic acid (CGA) can also be used specifically for an ester of caffeic acid and (-)-quinic acid. It is an important biosynthetic intermediate.[2] Chlorogenic acid is an important intermediate in lignin biosynthesis. This compound, long known as an antioxidant, also slows the release of glucose into the bloodstream after a meal.[3]Chlorogenic acids contain no chlorine. The name comes from the Greek χλωρός (light green) and -γένος (a suffix meaning “giving rise to”), because of the green color produced when chlorogenic acids are oxidized.


Isorhamnetin is an O-methylated flavonol, a type of Flavonols, belonging to Flavonoids (polyphenols) found in Tagetes lucida.

Health benefits

1. Antioxidant activity
in the investigation the phenolic composition and antioxidant activities of aqueous infusions from wild-grown caper ( Capparis spinosa L.) and sea fennel ( Crithmum maritimum L.) from the Dalmatia region (Croatia) after their submission to an in vitro digestion process. HPLC/UV-vis-DAD/ESI-MS analysis of the caper infusion identified rutin, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, and isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside as dominant flavonoids found that Both infusions exhibited good and dose-dependent antioxidant activity before in vitro digestion by the DPPH method, the β-carotene bleaching method, and copper-induced oxidation of human LDL, according to the study of “Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous Infusions from Capparis spinosa L. and Crithmum maritimum L. before and after Submission to a Two-Step in Vitro Digestion Model” by Siracusa L, Kulisic-Bilusic T, Politeo O, Krause I, Dejanovic B, Ruberto G.(1)

2. Stabilization of beta-catenin
In the evaluation of isorhamnetin and its effect of anti-adipogenic effects in stabilization of beta-catenin found that Isorhamnetin inhibited the adipocyte differentiation of hAMSCs. Additionally, when the effects of Wnt antagonists that promote adipogenesis were evaluated, isorhamnetin was found to down-regulate the mRNA levels of sFRP1 and Dkk1, but had no effect on the mRNA levels of sFRP2, sFRP3, sFRP4 and Dkk3, according to “Isorhamnetin-induced anti-adipogenesis is mediated by stabilization of beta-catenin protein” by Lee J, Lee J, Jung E, Hwang W, Kim YS, Park D.(2)

3. Anti-inflammatory properties
In the observation of quercetin and its major metabolites quercetin-3-glucuronide (Q3G) and isorhamnetin and theirs effects on on inflammatory gene expression found that Anti-inflammatory properties of quercetin and isorhamnetin were accompanied by an increase in heme oxygenase 1 protein levels, a downstream target of the transcription factor Nrf2, known to antagonize chronic inflammation, according to “Effect of quercetin and its metabolites isorhamnetin and quercetin-3-glucuronide on inflammatory gene expression: role of miR-155″ by Boesch-Saadatmandi C, Loboda A, Wagner AE, Stachurska A, Jozkowicz A, Dulak J, Döring F, Wolffram S, Rimbach G.(3)

4. Skin inflammation
In the analyzing the aerial parts of Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (Compositae)(AR), containing Nine major compounds, scopoletin, scopolin, scoparone, esculetin, quercetin, capillarisin, isorhamnetin, 3-O-robinobioside, isorhamnetin 3-O-galactoside and chlorogenic acid and theirs effect on Skin inflammation found that AR and some of their major constituents are 5-LOX inhibitors, and these in vitro and in vivo activities may contribute to the therapeutic potential of AR in skin inflammatory disorders in traditional medicine, according to “Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and skin inflammation by the aerial parts of Artemisia capillaris and its constituents” by Kwon OS, Choi JS, Islam MN, Kim YS, Kim HP.(4)

5. Myelogenous erythroleukaemia cells
In the confirmation of isorhamnetin3-O-rutinoside (I3-O-R) of ethyl acetate extract (EA) obtained from Nitraria retusa leaves and its effect on human chronic myelogenous erythroleukaemia cells (K562) found that Apoptosis, revealed by DNA fragmentation and PARP cleavage, was observed after 48-h incubation of these human myelogenous erythroleukaemia cells (K562), with the tested products. Likewise, caspase 3 and caspase 8 activities were induced in the presence of the EA extract and I3-O-R after 48 h of incubation, according to “Ethyl acetate extract and its major constituent, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside, from Nitraria retusa leaves, promote apoptosis of human myelogenous erythroleukaemia cells” by Boubaker J, Bhouri W, Ben Sghaier M, Ghedira K, Dijoux Franca MG, Chekir-Ghedira L.(5)

6. Cytotoxicity
In the examination of heterogenoside E and F, isolated from Lysimachia heterogenea Klatt, together with the eight known compounds, including isorhamnetin-3-O-galactopyranoside found that The cytotoxic activities of anagallisin C, heterogenoside E and F were weak, according to “Two new triterpenoids from Lysimachia heterogenea Klatt and evaluation of their cytotoxicity” by Huang XA, Shen XL, Hu YJ, Liu YM, Liu KL, Zhang FX, Zhou XX.(6)

7. Hepatoprotective activities
In the investigation of antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of phenolic rich fraction (PRF) of Seabuckthorn leaves on CCl(4) including 319.33 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g PRF and some of its phenolic constituents, such as gallic acid, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin and theirs effect on hepatoprotective activities found that PRF has potent antioxidant activity, prevent oxidative damage to major biomolecules and afford significant protection against CCl(4) induced oxidative damage in the liver found that Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of phenolic rich fraction of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaves” byMaheshwari DT, Yogendra Kumar MS, Verma SK, Singh VK, Singh SN.(7)

8. Osteoporosis
In the analyzing crude ethanolic extract of TSZ. the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis (Tu-Si-Zi, TSZ), including quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, hyperoside and astragalin and theirs effects found that the clinical use of TSZ in the treatment of osteoporosis, and demonstrated that kaempferol and hyperoside are the active compounds in TSZ for the osteogenic effect, according to “Antiosteoporotic compounds from seeds of Cuscuta chinensis” by Yang L, Chen Q, Wang F, Zhang G.(8)

9. Skin cancer
In the analyzing 3′-Methoxy-3,4′,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone (isorhamnetin) in fruits and medicinal herbs and its effect on skin cancer found that sorhamnetin inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced neoplastic cell transformation. It also suppressed anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of A431 human epithelial carcinoma cells. Isorhamnetin attenuated EGF-induced COX-2 expression in JB6 and A431 cells. In an in vivo mouse xenograft using A431 cells, isorhamnetin reduced tumor growth and COX-2 expression, according to “Isorhamnetin suppresses skin cancer through direct inhibition of MEK1 and PI3-K” by Kim JE, Lee DE, Lee KW, Son JE, Seo SK, Li J, Jung SK, Heo YS, Mottamal M, Bode AM, Dong Z, Lee HJ.(9)

10. cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1) activity
In the examination of a standard reference material of a Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), containing kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, ginkgolides and bilobalid found that demonstrated a strong induction (p < 0.005) of CYP1A1 activity and a slight, but significant (p < 0.005), decrease of this activity in the presence of B[a]P by the GBE at the realistic exposure level of 100 μg/ml, according to “Modulation of CYP1A1 activity by a Ginkgo biloba extract in the human intestinal Caco-2 cells” byRibonnet L, Callebaut A, Nobels I, Scippo ML, Schneider YJ, De Saeger S, Pussemier L, Larondelle Y.(10)

About kylenorton (author)

All rights reserved. Any reproducing of this article must have the author name and all the links intact. “Let Take Care Your Health, Your Health Will Take Care You” Kyle J. Norton I have been studying natural remedies for disease prevention for over 20 years and working as a financial consultant since 1990. Master degree in Mathematics, teaching and tutoring math at colleges and universities before joining insurance industries. Part time Health, Insurance and Entertainment Article Writer.



In a 2007 study that assessed the anti-Hepatitis B effects of Hyperoside, and that was published in the Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, it was shown that Hyperoside (which is the 3-O-galactoside of quercetin) is a strong inhibitor of HBsAg and HBeAg secretion in 2.2.15 cells. [17]

In another study also published in 2007 in the Archives of Pharmacal Research it was shown that quercetin, quercitrin and myricetin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside displayed inhibition against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, all with IC50 values of 60 microM. [18]


The American Cancer Society says while quercetin “has been promoted as being effective against a wide variety of diseases, including cancer,” and “some early lab results appear promising, as of yet there is no reliable clinical evidence that quercetin can prevent or treat cancer in humans.” In the amounts consumed in a healthy diet, quercetin “is unlikely to cause any major problems or benefits.”[19]

In laboratory studies of cells in vitro, quercetin produces changes that are also produced by compounds that cause cancer (carcinogens), but these studies do not report increased cancer in animals or humans.[20][21][22]

From laboratory studies is conjecture that quercetin may affect certain mechanisms of cancer.[23][24] An 8-year study found the presence of three flavonols — kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin — in a normal diet was associated with 23% reduced risk of pancreatic cancer, a rare but frequently fatal disease, in tobacco smokers.[25] There was no benefit in subjects who had never smoked or had previously quit smoking.

In vitro, cultured skin and prostate cancer cells were suppressed (compared to nonmalignant cells) when treated with a combination of quercetin and ultrasound.[26]

In laboratory culture studies, quercetin increased the sensitivity of resistant colorectal tumors with microsatellite instability to the chemotherapy drug, 5-fluorouracil.[27]


Several laboratory studies show quercetin may have anti-inflammatory properties,[28][29] and it is being investigated for a wide range of potential health benefits.[29][30]

Quercetin has been reported to be of use in alleviating symptoms of pollinosis.[31] An enzymatically modified derivative was found to alleviate ocular but not nasal symptoms of pollinosis.[32][33][34]

Studies done in test tubes have shown quercetin may affect immune cells from releasing histamines which might influence symptoms of allergies.[35][36]

A study with rats showed that quercetin effectively reduced immediate-release niacin (vitamin B3) flush, in part by means of reducing prostaglandin D2 production.[37] A pilot clinical study of four humans gave preliminary data supporting this.[38]

Quercetin may have properties of a calcineurin inhibitor, similar to cyclosporin A and tacrolimus, according to one laboratory study.[39]


Quercetin may be effective in the treatment of fibromyalgia because of its potential anti-inflammatory or mast cell inhibitory properties shown in laboratory studies.[40]

Metabolic syndrome

Quercetin has been shown to increase energy expenditure in rats, but only for short periods (fewer than 8 weeks).[28] Effects of quercetin on exercise tolerance in mice have been associated with increased mitochondrial biogenesis.[29] In mice, an oral quercetin dose of 12.5 to 25 mg/kg increased gene expression of mitochondrial biomarkers and improved exercise endurance.[41]

It has also been claimed that quercetin reduces blood pressure in hypertensive[42] and obese subjects in whom LDL cholesterol levels were also reduced.[43]

An in vitro study showed quercetin and resveratrol combined inhibited production of fat cells.[44]

A 12-week study of 941 adults found that supplements of 500 to 1000 milligrams of quercetin with vitamin C and niacin did not cause any significant difference in body mass or composition[45] and had no significant effect on inflammatory markers, diagnostic blood chemistries, blood pressure, and blood lipid profiles.[46]

Monoamine-oxidase inhibitor

Quercetin has also been shown to have MAO inhibiting activity, of MAO-A (IC50 = 18±0.2μM) which may explain some of its pharmacological properties.[47]


^ a b c Quercetin dihydrate safety sheet on http://www.pvp.com.br (English)
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^ USDA Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods, Release 3, 2011
^ Crystal Smith, Kevin A. Lombard, Ellen B. Peffley, Weixin Liu (2003). “Genetic Analysis of Quercetin in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Lady Raider“. The Texas Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resource (Agriculture Consortium of Texas) 16: 24–8. Archived from the original on February 25, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070225125621/http%3A//www.tarleton.edu/%7Etxjanr/2003issue/article3.pdf.
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^ In vitro studies indicate that miquelianin (Quercetin 3-o-β-d-glucuronopyranoside) is able to reach the CNS from the small intestine. Juergenliemk Guido, Boje Kerstin, Huewei Sabine, Lohmann Christina, Galla Hans-Joachim and Nahrstedt Adolf, Planta medica, 2003, vol. 69, no11, pages 1013-1017, INIST:15349178
^ Metabolism of quercetin by Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 9245. Jiachen Zi, Jonathan Valiiante, Jia Zeng and Jixun Zhan, Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Volume 112, Issue 4, October 2011, pages 360-362, doi:10.1016/j.jbiosc.2011.06.006
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^ Yu, YB; Miyashiro H, Nakamura N, Hattori M, Park JC (2007-07-30). “Effects of triterpenoids and flavonoids isolated from Alnus firma on HIV-1 viral enzymes.”. Archives of Pharmacal Research. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Effects%20of%20triterpenoids%20and%20flavonoids%20isolated%20from%20Alnus%20firma%20on%20HIV-1%20viral%20enzymes..
^ American Cancer Society, Quercetin
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^ Phys Ed: Is Quercetin Really a Wonder Sports Supplement? By Gretchen Reynolds. New York Times, October 7, 2009. Review of the research.
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^ Quercetin, University of Maryland Medical Center, http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/quercetin-000322.htm
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^ Papaliodis D, Boucher W, Kempuraj D, Theoharides TC (2008). “The flavonoid luteolin inhibits niacin-induced flush”. Brit J Pharmacol 153 (7): 1382–87. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0707668. PMC 2437911. PMID 18223672. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2437911/.
^ Kalogeromitros, D; Makris, M; Chliva, C; Aggelides, X; Kempuraj, D; Theoharides, TC (2008). “A quercetin containing supplement reduces niacin-induced flush in humans”. International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology 21 (3): 509–14. PMID 18831918.
^ Hong Lei, Jing Luo, Li Tong, Li-qin Peng, Yao Qi, Zhi-guang Jia, Qun Wei (2011). “Quercetin binds to calcineurin at a similar region to cyclosporin A and tacrolimus”. Food Chemistry 127 (3): 1169–1174. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.01.119.
^ Lucas HJ, Brauch CM, Settas L, Theoharides TC (2006). “Fibromyalgia–new concepts of pathogenesis and treatment”. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 19 (1): 5–10. PMID 16569342.
^ Davis JM, Murphy EA, Carmichael MD, Davis B. (2009). “Quercetin increases brain and muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and exercise tolerance”. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 296 (4): R1071–7. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.90925.2008. PMID 19211721.
^ Edwards RL, Lyon T, Litwin SE, Rabovsky A, Symons JD, Jalili T (1 November 2007). “Quercetin reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects”. J. Nutr. 137 (11): 2405–11. PMID 17951477. http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17951477.
^ Egert S et al. (2009). “Quercetin reduces systolic blood pressure and plasma oxidised low-density lipoprotein concentrations in overweight subjects with a high-cardiovascular disease risk phenotype: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over study”. Br J Nutr 102 (7): 1065–1074. doi:10.1017/S0007114509359127. PMID 19402938.
^ Yang JY, Della-Fera MA, Rayalam S, Ambati S, Hartzell DL, Park HJ, Baile CA (2008). “Enhanced inhibition of adipogenesis and induction of apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with combinations of resveratrol and quercetin”. Life Sci. 82 (19–20): 1032–9. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2008.03.003. PMID 18433793.
^ Knab, AM; Shanely, RA; Jin, F; Austin, MD; Sha, W; Nieman, DC (2011). “Quercetin with vitamin C and niacin does not affect body mass or composition”. Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolisme 36 (3): 331–8. doi:10.1139/h11-015. PMID 21574787.
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^ Judy L. Raucy (1 May 2003). “Regulation of CYP3A4 Expression in Human Hepatocytes by Pharmaceuticals and Natural Products”. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 31 (3): 533–539. doi:10.1124/dmd.31.5.533. PMID


One research use of the saponin class of natural products involves their complexation with cholesterol to form pores in cell membrane bilayers, e.g., in red cell (erythrocyte) membranes, where complexation leads to red cell lysis (hemolysis) on intravenous injection.[15] In addition, the amphipathic nature of the class gives them activity as surfactants that can be used to enhance penetration of macromolecules such as proteins through cell membranes.[7] Saponins have also been used as adjuvants in vaccines.[7]

Saponins from the Gypsophila paniculata (baby’s breath) plant have been shown to very significantly augment the cytotoxicity of immunotoxins and other targeted toxins directed against human cancer cells. The research groups of Professor Hendrik Fuchs (Charité University, Berlin, Germany) and Dr David Flavell (Southampton General Hospital, United Kingdom) are working together toward the development of Gypsophila saponins for use in combination with immunotoxins or other targeted toxins for patients with leukaemia, lymphoma and other cancers.

^ a b c d e f g Hostettmann, K.; A. Marston (1995). Saponins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 3ff. ISBN 0-521-32970-1. OCLC 29670810.
^ a b c d “Saponins”. Cornell University. 14 August 2008. http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/toxicagents/saponin.html. Retrieved 23 February 2009.
^ “Project Summary: Functional Genomics of Triterpene Saponin Biosynthesis in Medicago Truncatula”. http://www.noble.org/Plantbio/Dixon/Personnel/project_summaries/Saponin.html. Retrieved 23 February 2009.
^ a b c d e Foerster, Hartmut (22 May 2006). “MetaCyc Pathway: saponin biosynthesis I”. http://BioCyc.org/META/NEW-IMAGE?type=PATHWAY&object=PWY-5203&detail-level=3. Retrieved 23 February 2009.
^ Riguera, Ricardo (August 1997). “Isolating bioactive compounds from marine organisms”. Journal of Marine Biotechnology 5 (4): 187–193. http://www.springerlink.com/content/m9cclbrm1y0e5ge5/.
^ Liener, Irvin E (1980). Toxic constituents fo plant foodstuffs. New York City: Academic Press. p. 161. ISBN 0-12-449960-0. OCLC 5447168.[verification needed]
^ a b c “Saponin from quillaja bark”. Sigma-Aldrich. http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/ProductDetail.do?N4=S4521%7CSIGMA&N5=SEARCH_CONCAT_PNO%7CBRAND_KEY&F=SPEC. Retrieved 23 February 2009.
^ Antibacterial activity of leave extracts of Nymphaea lotus (Nymphaeaceae) on Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) isolated from clinical samples. Akinjogunla OJ, Yah CS, Eghafona NO and Ogbemudia FO, Annals of Biological Research, 2010, 1 (2), pages 174-184
^ http://www.jstor.org/pss/4107559 Fish-poison plants
^ Jonathan G. Cannon, Robert A. Burton, Steven G. Wood, and Noel L. Owen http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ed081p1457 Naturally Occurring Fish Poisons from Plants
^ C. E. Bradley, Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology http://www.springerlink.com/content/tv14824mq766n805/ Arrow and fish poison of the American southwest
^ Tinde Van Andel http://www.springerlink.com/content/07t562192r645178/ The diverse uses of fish-poison plants in Northwest Guyana
^ Murthy E N, Pattanaik, Chiranjibi, Reddy, C Sudhakar, Raju, V S http://nopr.niscair.res.in/handle/123456789/7696 Piscicidal plants used by Gond tribe of Kawal wildlife sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh, India
^ Campbell, Paul (1999). Survival skills of native California. Gibbs Smith. pp. 433. ISBN 978-0-87905-921-7. http://books.google.com/?id=qSRLW5ziVFAC&pg=PA433&lpg=PA433&dq=soaproot+fish+poison#v=onepage&q=soaproot%20fish%20poison&f=false.
^ Francis, George; Zohar Kerem, Harinder P. S. Makkar and Klaus Becker (December 2002). “The biological action of saponins in animal systems: a review”. British Journal of Nutrition 88 (6): 587–605. doi:10.1079/BJN2002725. PMID 12493081.
^ Asl, Marjan Nassiri; Hossein Hosseinzadeh (June 2008). “Review of pharmacological effects of Glycyrrhiza sp. and its bioactive compounds”. Phytotherapy Research 22 (6): 709–24. doi:10.1002/ptr.2362. PMID 18446848.
^ Xu R, Zhao W, Xu J, Shao B, Qin G (1996). “Studies on bioactive saponins from Chinese medicinal plants”. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 404: 371–82. PMID 8957308.
^ “MetaCyc Pathway: saponin biosynthesis IV”. http://BioCyc.org/META/NEW-IMAGE?type=PATHWAY&object=PWY-5774&detail-level=3. Retrieved 23 February 2009.
^ “Saponin”. J.T. Baker. http://hazard.com/msds/mf/baker/baker/files/s0746.htm. Retrieved 23 February 2009.
^ Skene, Caroline D.; Philip Sutton (September 2006). “Saponin-adjuvanted particulate vaccines for clinical use”. Methods 40 (1): 53–9. doi:10.1016/j.ymeth.2006.05.019. PMID 16997713.
^ Zentner, Eduard (July 2011). “Effects of phytogenic feed additives containing quillaja saponaria on ammonia in fattening pigs”. http://www.delacon.com/phytogenics/articles/Effects-of-phytogenic-feed-additives-containing-quillaja-saponaria-on-ammonia-in-fattening-pigs.pdf. Retrieved 27 November 2012.